Speak Like a Bore

Like most things, public speaking is a skill. It can be learned, practiced and mastered if you are willing to put the time and effort in. Even so, for many the thought of standing up in front of people and speaking can fill them with dread, meaning they miss many business opportunities.

Throughout my career public speaking has been fundamental to what I do, and I have spoken on all aspects of security, with a strong focus on cyber security, security culture, and disinformation. Whilst now, some people say I make it look easy it wasn’t always this way. It’s something I have worked at and I still get nervous (it’s not fear, it’s excitement).

There’s a lot of advice out there, and it doesn’t all work for everyone. Since I get asked, and some of the advice I apply

Ten Tips to Speaking Like a Bore

Although every speaker is different and may have different styles of communication these tips are universal and will help speakers in every industry.

  1. Enough (but not too much) preparation  – This isn’t necessarily about rehearsal. Some advocate for diligent rehearsing, and for some people it works. It can also mean your talk comes off as scripted. Preparation for me is about thinking through the presentation and reviewing it, along with considering what questions it provokes. Having a couple of pre-prepared questions at the end (if you’re going into Q&A) can help break the audience’s resistance to being the first one to ask. I will run through one practice run, but rarely more than that and instead spend hours working through mentally.
  2. Know your audience – It’s important to pitch your talk at the appropriate level for the audience present. This could mean asking the organiser who they are, their knowledge level, and equally important the intended outcomes for the talk. Then, adjust your language to fit. Define your terms if they won’t be known, break down difficult concepts as you go through if your audience is unlikely to be familiar with them.
  3. Timing – Often when speaking you know in advance how long you have to speak for but sticking to it can be difficult if you haven’t prepared. Through practicing you can ensure you use the time sufficiently as well as not going over the allotted time or finishing too early. Also important when you’re dealing with some events is being able to adjust the length of your talk on the fly, due to other people overrunning or underrunning. Hosts are often very grateful if you can get their event back closer to the planned schedule. A silent alarm set at particular intervals helps to reinforce this.
  4. Appropriate Slides – As a guide there should be a maximum of one slide per minute of your talk, I usually aim for less than this. The slides should not have your speech written on them but should include images (or bullet points at most). You don’t want people to be reading when you are talking, and additionally what is the purpose of you being there if all the information is written on the slide? One good test is whether you could present without your slides (this doesn’t apply so much to technical presentations, and even less to ones involving live technical demos).
  5. Follow a structure – Think of your talk like a meal, with an appetiser (introducing the topic in a light summary to whet the appetite), a main (the crux of the talk), and dessert (a summary of all the key points). Coffee and mints afterwards covers the Q & A session which you could kick-start with ‘one question I often get asked about this is …’ if the audience is shy (they often are).
  6. Appropriate repetition – There is nothing worse than an hour’s talk which could have been completed in 15 minutes and was padded out with redundant points and verbiage (see the House of Commons for examples), but repeating points in a different way can both help to drive them home or relate them to different audience segments. In one of my favourite talks, I use three different end of the world scenarios to support a single point about decentralisation and resilience.
  7. Have a drink handy – Public speaking can be thirsty work but more importantly having a glass of water handy can be useful if you need a moment to catch up, have lost your thread, or need to think over an answer to a question. Those few seconds taking a sip can get you right on track. Depending on the audience and the venue, other beverages may be appropriate, but avoid straws, hot drinks, or anything sparkling, sour, or creamy (can stimulate saliva production, which you don’t really want too much of while speaking).
  8. Pace your speech – People have a tendency to speak faster when on stage than they do normally, and not breathe enough. Treat it more like a conversation, pauses in the right places give people time to process, faster speech is seen as a sign of nervousness so slowing down helps, and one thing I always want to avoid doing is letting my mouth run ahead of my thoughts – slowing it down means your thoughts can keep up and helps to erase pause words (um, err, ah, etc) and impressions of uncertainty.
  9. Interaction – Even if you are speaking in front of hundreds of people always remember you are speaking to a group of people with ideas, reactions and thoughts. Ask questions of the audience, although make it clear at the beginning whether interaction from them is acceptable. Simply asking for a show of hands or a nod can keep them engaged.
  10. Admit when you don’t know – Although point one stated it was important to prepare for questions that people may have, you may still get questions which you don’t have an answer for. Whatever you do, don’t blag it. If you don’t know the answer, ‘fess up and say you’re not sure. Better yet, go with my favourite answer ‘I don’t know but it’s a fascinating question and really deserves further exploration’.

There’s a lot more advice out there about public speaking from vocal exercises to correct posture but keep these ten things in mind and you won’t go far wrong. A lot of the rest comes from experience and finding your own stage persona. Try out different behaviours and techniques while you’re starting out, and see what works for you.

Certification Might Not Make You Secure … but it will make you richer.

Stuart Barker with his team

So, let’s take a look at where cyber security certifications are going and their place within small medium sized business.

I’m a big fan of James and I have followed him for a very long time. So, it was an absolute pleasure when he offered to allow me to do a blog on his prestigious COFFEEFUELED blog. Looking for topics, it got me to thinking about lots of discussions that I have with people in industry that say certifications won’t stop you getting hacked, certifications won’t make you anymore secure, and generally there is a feeling that certifications aren’t part of the cyber security landscape but are a necessary evil.

To some extent I do agree with them having a certification will not stop you getting hacked or make you secure but, if done right, it is a consequence of having them that you will reduce the risk.

It’s very very easy to tackle certifications on the premise that you just want to tick a box and get that certification. It also relatively easy to do it. That’s for another blog.

The first thing to do really is to work out why you are going for a certification and where that certification fits in your strategy. Now let’s be honest, 99% of the time, certification is driven by customer requirement and customer need and companies are only going for certification because their customers are asking for it. Hence certifications will make you richer.

But it doesn’t have to end there. You can go about certifications in the right way, and it will have a knock-on impact and a positive impact on your overall security posture. Certification is not there to tell professionals who know what they’re doing how to do their job and at no point would a certification do that. It highly relies on the skillsets of the people that are already in your business.

But what it does do is enhances skills, knowledge and experience with the management structure and governance and management framework that allows us to put in some common operating models that have been proven to reduce risk and increase overall security.

It can only be seen that certifications are going to become more and more important as we move forward into 2022 and 2023. And the reason for that is that the security of the supply chain is one of the most significant risks to any organisation. The risk that your suppliers are not doing the right thing or don’t have adequate security in place. So, this shifts the conversation from the security of your organisation and the certification necessarily addressing your security requirements, but it moves it to ensuring that suppliers that supply products and services to you are themselves secure.

Now the way that you’re going to do that is either going to do an audit of that company and spend valuable time and resources to check that they are doing things to a level that you are happy and comfortable with or as is more and more the case you’re going to ask them for a certificate. The reason that you are asking for a certificate is a certification means that somebody else who is highly qualified and experienced in conducting audits has done the work for you.

You can see therefore that the unintended consequence of that is that the people that you do business with are now wanting to secure their supply chains and they’re going to be asking the same questions of you. Are you certified?

We can have a debate about the value of the various certifications from cyber essentials, cyber essentials plus, ISO 27001, SOC 2 … and the list goes on. But they all have their place and provide assurances back to customers that we’re doing the right thing for information security.

I don’t see certifications going away any time soon.

Stuart Barker, today's guest blogger

Stuart Barker is an ISO 27001 practitioner at High Table. He has been in information security for over 20 years. Today he is making information security templates available to business to help them do certifications themselves. 

Making Tabletops Work for You

Cyber security is a complex beast, as to be successful attacks have to be prevented. To do this it’s important to pre-empt the cyber criminals as well as knowing the processes for countering the attack. One way of modelling this is via incident response tabletop exercises to recreate an attack before it happens, to work out how to fight it, and therefore how to prevent it.

How do they work?

Incident response tabletop exercises are interactive discussion groups with different team members from the organisation, where their roles in the case of various cyber attack scenarios are discussed.

The facilitator of the exercises challenges the participants, by presenting different scenarios (from real-life experiences) to see how they would react, as well as present the results of those actions.

These discussion groups not only identify gaps and weaknesses within the organisation and their preparedness for a series of attacks but will also make suggestions which will improve security within the business, increase the knowledge and skill set of the staff as well as their confidence when it comes to preventing an attack and knowing how to handle it should the worst happen. 

How can they benefit your business?

Incident response tabletop exercises can offer a great number of benefits to a business and should be considered an ongoing part of cyber security processes.

·        Forewarned is forearmed – If your IT network was victim to ransomware, would your team know what to do? Or would there be an element of panic whilst everyone worked out a plan? Through an incident response tabletop exercise, the process in place for dealing with a ransomware attack would be tested meaning everyone would knos what to do, so the situation could be dealt with efficiently with minimum downtime.

·        Fail Safely – If you do have a process in place for how to deal with a cyberattack, it is best to find out its flaws and vulnerabilities in a safe environment rather than ‘live’ when such vulnerabilities could cost your business. By testing the plan, you can iron out any problems and plug any gaps without the immediacy of an attack hanging over your head.

·        Cost saving – Although there is a financial investment with implementing incident response tabletop exercises as part of your security assessment it is marginal to what a ransomware attack could cost your business in computer downtime, lost business, lost reputation and potential fines for lack of security compliancy.

·        Teamwork – Keeping your cyber security recovery plan up to date is essential, as a robust security plan relies on teamwork, multi-disciplinary skills and the cooperation of everyone in the organisation. However, if your plan is outdated, and there have been numerous changes in staff the plan may not run as smoothly as you would like.

Training using incident response tabletop exercises ensures that everyone within the organisation knows what to do in the case of a cyberattack (as well as how to prevent one happening).

·        Peace of mind – Whilst no-one is 100% safe from a cyberattack the more you are able to do to prevent one from happening, as well as knowing how you would respond quickly and with minimum disruption can give you peace of mind knowing that your business is covered.

If you think your business could benefit from our ‘Fail Safely’ exercises, or you would like to assess the vulnerabilities within your cyber security recovery plan, or you just want to have a chat about how to improve your cyber security drop us a message today. You can never be too secure, but you can be under-practiced. 

A New Path

The 7th of September, 2020 is an important day for me as it will mark the the re-launch of the family company with me fully taking the helm as the new company director. This is an exciting step for me and for the future of the company.  

Bores has a wonderful heritage, being set up in October 1988 by Chris and Sarah Bore with an impassioned focus on training NXP/TriMedia hardware and software as well as image and digital signal processing (DSP). However, these industry pioneers retired earlier this year and handed over the business name and values to me, their son (along with the business trip shotglass collection).

I am not new to the family business and I have been working on an ad hoc basis for the company since 2005 (earlier if you include hooking up BNC connectors because small hands are better under desks). However, on the 7th this will be my full-time role and I have to say that I am excited for what the future holds.

Whilst wanting to maintain the essence of the business as set up by Chris and Sarah, I do have some exciting plans for the future. Bores will no longer be offering DSP or NXP training as I am steering the focus of the company onto digital, data and cyber security, and am offering a bespoke consultancy and training service along these lines.

So, where have I come from?

I have grown up with the business and technology since its foundation in 1988 and have a deep-rooted passion and fascination for computers, networking and IT security. I had once considered a different path and started a physics degree in 2000, but decided I would much rather work in IT. And I am so glad I did.

After a few years working in the IT industry across the board including; IT support, security, development, architecture and engineering, I found my focus had moved completely to security, and the growing importance of this is an ever-increasing and therefore evolving element of the industry.

At the end of 2016, following a debilitating six months of viral arthritis which gave me time to reassess my life, I enrolled at Northumbria University to do an MSc in Cyber Security, from which I graduated in 2019.

This gave me the know-how and confidence to consider working independently, although it was also at this time that I discussed the future of Bores with my parents who were considering retiring. I had intended to start my own independent consultancy, but I decided I would rather keep the family business going for another 30+ years. Bores is a piece of history. Not only for my family but for the wider technology industry and it would almost be criminal to let it go.

Although a well-established family business, I do want to put my own stamp on Bores Consultancy Ltd with a complete redesign and relaunch whilst still delivering top-quality training and consultancy services with a rigorous security perspective whilst upholding the company values set by my parents in the past.

I hope you will join me in celebrating this new era of Bores Consultancy Ltd and wish me luck for the next stage in my career and the career of this family business. But also, I would like to reassure Sarah and Chris that their creation is safe in the hands of their son meaning they can have a relaxed retirement.

I am working on the mechanics of a safe, virtual launch party of some kind for the evening of the 4th of September. Sorry to say that it will be a bring your own bottle event, but at least the travel costs will be low.

Thanks to everyone for all your support and help over the years, I would never have gotten to this point without you all.

#OSS2020 Playing with Security

A few weeks ago I ended up getting involved with the Open Security Summit 2020, initially with the idea of just running a threat modelling session. Things progressed a bit, and the idea evolved as time went on. We ended up with an interesting approach to an incident response scenario, which I want to document and carry further.

You may have had experience of incident response tabletops, or scenarios, before where there are various injects such as newspaper headlines and similar to help set the scene and get effective responses. If not the idea is to run through some sort of incident scenario to test internal response processes. Usually this involves senior members of an organisation sitting around a table to run through a scripted scenario.

With #OSS2020 we put a slightly different spin on it. Rather than just having one team, we had several, covering different perspectives of an incident – including the attacker team. Red team exercises are familiar to many, and really all we did was bring that concept to a tabletop exercise so that the scenario could shift and alter as events progressed.

The ‘script’ was a basic description of a company and their product, and initial briefing cards for each of the teams, the rest was done by moderators talking across back channels (a private Slack channel) to coordinate between breakout rooms. The experience was entirely different from any similar scenario I’ve run through, with a sense of pressure that’s often missing, and decisions having more dramatic consequences than they might (revoking root certificates to customer environments did stymie the attackers for a while, but also held back the blue team from remediation actions – whether it was the right call or not is something we’ll be discussing in the post-mortem).

It’s an exercise I’d definitely repeat again and encourage others to try. The one big conclusion we came to after the session was that a central point of coordination would be extremely useful to adjudicate on actions taken by teams, rather than relying on discussion by the team moderators. If anyone would like help performing such an exercise, tailored to their organisation, get in touch – the prep work needed is minimal and the output in terms of not only testing responses but increasing awareness and understanding is hard to overstate.

In the spirit of #OSS2020, the videos will be uploaded to YouTube and made available – including the conversations in the different breakout rooms as they occurred – and while they’ll be a long watch I would recommend taking a look when they go up.

Running a Coffeehouse

Yesterday I ran the first, to my knowledge, security coffeehouse. Based on the ideas I’ve taken on from Cafe Scientifique, where years ago I had one of my first public speaking experiences (on the science of cyber security), the security coffeehouse is about bringing people into a conversation on a security-related topic.

I have to admit, the positivity of the response has been a touch overwhelming. I can’t help but feel this has tapped into something that’s needed as much as Cafe Scientifique was. To explain I guess a little background is needed.

The Cafe Scientifique movement was born from the idea that science should be brought into the open and discussed in the public sphere. Somewhat based on the ideas of the Parisian Salons of the 17th and 18th centuries, Cafe Scientifique is about letting people talk on scientific topics that they have researched, and letting an audience engage in the discussion.

The Security Coffeehouse idea is somewhat based off that, with a touch of the London Coffeehouses of the same period (if you’re wondering if they went anywhere, Lloyds came out of one of those coffeehouses). It’s about open discussion of security between people who know or are interested in something about it, and about making that available. Not about it being a peer to peer forum, or a vendor session, or a conference, just giving anyone who’s interested the opportunity to talk about it.

The feedback suggests that there’s a definite appetite for these sorts of events, so I plan to keep running them. Unlike the coffeehouses (or penny universities if you lived in Cambridge at the time), a relaxing drink in the hands of the panellists is strongly encouraged to help encourage the right relaxing atmosphere. I hope I’ll see some of you at one of these in future, whether on the panel or in the audience, going by the inaugural event future ones are going to be good.

Last mention – a huge thank you to the panellists from the first event, you made it possible, and you helped me realise it’s a viable idea.

Pen Testing – Why, When, and Where is it going?

Between various speaking gigs, running online events, writing for the Circuit, work, and some side projects, it’s been a while since I posted. Given that, I want to reactivate this with something that might be controversial and talk about pen testing.

Pen testing, or penetration testing, is the (usually) manual assessment of a system by experts in technical security. It can encompass, or be part of, red teaming exercises where physical vectors are also used, phishing testing, and similar activities, but the USP is usually that it’s done manually by experts (for a given definition of manually – any commercial pen tester who doesn’t script 90% of what they do is doing it wrong and wasting their time and your money).


There’s no denying the value of a well-scoped pen test performed at the right time in a product lifecycle. In the perfect scenario this pen test is comprehensive, with enough time to thoroughly delve into the system and provide proof of exploitation for all discoveries. Mostly, there isn’t enough time given for a fully comprehensive and thorough test, but there’s still value in this kind of deep delve.

Even if the test is short, and poorly scoped, it’s better than nothing so long as it isn’t taken to give a false sense of security around a product.

The findings of a good pen test can provide an organisation with a final check before going live to decide whether to accept, mitigate, or transfer any risks which are made visible. What a pen test cannot provide is assurance that the outcome of a project is secure, any more than any other testing. A pen test with no findings is like a house that hasn’t burned down – it’s no reason to skip having a fire alarm.


The pen test should be the last step of your security testing stack. It’s the most effortful, and most expensive, form of testing you can undergo and so wasting it on false positives and easy-to-fix vulnerabilities is not a good way to spend your money. Ideally you should pen test when you have a production-ready candidate, in parallel with your last round of release testing.

On top of that findings picked up by a pen test will be far, far more expensive to fix (both in terms of effort, delay, and financial outlay), so you want to minimise the chances of things being picked up this late. Earlier development lifecycle stages should progress from concept testing (threat modelling is great for this, and making sure requirements incorporate security), code analysis tools and secure coding practices, vulnerability scanning, fuzz testing, and/or any other testing that fits your model.

Where is it going?

This is the bit that might be controversial, and I want to be absolutely clear that I am in no way denigrating the value of pen testing, or the expertise of pen testers. This is speculation based on what I’ve seen in the security industry, and what I’m expecting to come up.

Pen testing benefits hugely from being the sexy, hyped-up side of security. Red teaming and pen testing tracks get far, far more attention and excitement than the more reactive incident response side, and both get more hype than the fully defensive planning and design stages.

I can understand this. I’m a big fan of heist movies myself, when I want to relax and do something professional I’d rather do a bit of CTF or play around with something from vulnhub than review architecture diagrams and project requirements, and I know from experience that I can get far more attendees and interest at a workshop or presentation on lockpicking than I can one on threat modelling (caveat: based on personal experience and anecdotal evidence rather than comprehensive data collection).

This is a problem. The attacking side may be the sexy side, but it only has limited effectiveness when you’re trying to defend a system. Pen testing done well is a simulated attack, and a simulated attack is not a comprehensive, long-term, defensive strategy. A pen test is, at its basic level, running through a series of tactics and seeing if they work. The reason a lot of it can be automated is because the vast majority of pen test findings are known vulnerabilities already, and the pen test is just discovering them and showing they can be exploited.

So I genuinely believe that as (or if) we mature the blue side more, pen testing is going to become both less important, and much, much more frustrating as a career. In fact security overall is (hopefully) going to become less of a thrill-a-minute experience if we do it right. In my ideal world, pen tests will become more and more a case of continuous security research into discovering new attack vectors and vulnerabilities, and pen testing for existing vulnerabilities will disappear.

That’s a utopian world and will never be fully achieved, but the automation of pen testing as we mostly know it today is here and that poses a threat to pen testing companies. While it’s an uncomfortable truth for both attack and defense sides, penetration tests are mostly compliance driven rather than arranged out of a genuine awareness of security needs. With the growth of automated testing, I am reasonably certain that it won’t be long before automated testing platforms and frameworks are accepted for compliance purposes.

Forward-thinking pen testing companies should doing two things if they want to survive and thrive. Preparing to shift into a different way of working (and honestly, a more interesting one than running through a list of the OWASP Top 10 for a few days – this is hyperbole but does have a grain of truth) is the first. Educating customers that they can add value beyond achieving ISO27k, PCI-DSS, SOC2, CBEST, etc is the second.

Doorstep Dispensaree

This entry is part [part not set] of 1 in the series Lessons Learned

Since it’s a New Year, and an opportunity presented itself, I’m trying something new. In this series, if it continues, I will be looking at various incidents and pulling out the lessons we can, should, or must learn in security. This first article looks at the first penalty levied by the ICO under GDPR, against Doorstep Dispensaree.

There are a few lessons to pull out of this case, but for those who want to look at the details themselves the full ICO penalty notice is available from their website.

The ICO identified a number of failings after they were called in by the MHRA, who had found some curious containers while executing a search warrant for their own investigation. In a courtyard behind the premises they found:

  • 47 unlocked crates
  • 2 disposal bags
  • 1 cardboard box

These unsecured containers, stored outside, contained around half a million documents – some water damaged – with personal information including medical and prescription information dating from 2016-2018. Shortly after they were informed, the Commissioner sent a request for additional information, a list which will be familiar to anyone who has banged their head against GDPR enough: data retention and disposal policies, privacy notice, explanation of why some data had been retained since 2016 and was stored in this way, and various other standard bits of evidence.

In response Doorstep Dispensaree did not cover themselves in glory by denying knowledge of the matter. Things escalated when they then refused to answer questions following a second request, apparently confusing the ICO and MHRA investigations. After an Information Notice was issued requiring the information, then appealed and upheld, they provided about half of the information claiming protection under the DPA 2018 that providing the rest would expose them to prosecution by the MHRA.

As part of their documentation, they did kindly provide the National Pharmacy Association template Data Protection Officer Guidance and Checklist, and Definitions and Quick Reference Guide. Other documents did not mention the GDPR, and the template were the original templates from the National Pharmacy Association.


In all Doorstep Dispensary were found to have contravened Articles 5, 13, 14, 24 and 32 to some degree or another. It’s a good thing for them that no information was stolen, as the ICO would have been unlikely to look on them kindly if anything had happened – especially as given the serious compliance failures it is unlikely any notification of the breach would have been forthcoming until the MHRA investigation flagged it up, and certainly not within the required 72 hours.

You cannot delegate responsibility for data you control

Doorstep Dispensaree failed to dispose of the data securely, fairly clearly as some of it dated from 2016. An attempt was made to have the penalty assigned to a waste disposal company, blaming them for not having picked up the waste, which the ICO dismissed. While no evidence that the company was contracted was provided, Doorstep Dispensaree also failed to implement their own claimed shredding procedures, and in any case as the data controller they are ultimately accountable for the breach.

Information security is more than just confidentiality

Apparently storing sensitive personal information in unlocked boxes in an accessible yard is not considered secure storage or processing. As this is fairly obvious, the main point of interest here is that the ICO picked up on water damage to the documents being another failing. In information security terminology, there was a failure to ensure integrity and availability along with confidentiality. There is more to information security than simply locking data away.

Policies do not work retroactively

The ICO commented that eventually Doorstep Dispensaree did provide a more comprehensive set of policies. Unfortunately many were still in template form and had been acquired as a response to the investigation. The lesson here is that once an investigation has started, it’s probably too late to start downloading policy templates – best to put a framework in place beforehand.

Only keep data that needs to be kept

While the ICO were generous enough to only consider on-going infringement from May 2018, they remarked that the age of the data caused some concern about retention.

Be clear on your privacy notice

Your privacy notice requires you to state who the controller is and how to contact them, the nature of the processing and the basis (and with special category data the additional basis for processing), the categories of personal data you collect and work with, all parties involved in the processing of data, how long it is retained, the rights of the data subjects, and where personal data is collected. It must also be written in clear, unambiguous language and be freely available to data subjects.

A GDPR breach does not require that data has been lost or stolen

What’s particularly interesting about this case compared to many of the headlines about cyber-related data protection incidents, is that no data was stolen. The fact that it could have led to distress and damage to individuals is sufficient.

Trying to improve counts

The improvements Doorstep Dispensaree claims to be making have been taken into account, even though some of the policy documents presented are still in template format.

If you are found in breach, co-operate

It is very clear that the lack of early co-operation did more to hurt than help Doorstep Dispensaree’s case. Later co-operation and attempts to improve were taken into account, and the original proposed penalty of £400 000 was finalised as £275 000.

‘Insider’ Threat with Deepfakes

I have been neglecting this blog recently as finishing off my master’s thesis (now done, passed and everything), working on various tasks in a new role, and finishing off a contributed book chapter have been priorities. With two of those three taken care of I am hoping to have time to write a bit more on here again.

In that spirit, and as nice piece of synergy with the book chapter, a quick word about an incident reported today. I predict it will be the first of many.

Impersonation of senior executives via e-mail has become a well-established, and profitable, practice among both organised and disorganised cyber criminals. Some of the most advanced attempts go to extreme lengths of surveillance and co-ordination. Even the most basic mass attempts have seen some success. Whether to include this as insider threat is more a philosophical debate than one where we can draw a clear line, but I choose to include it.

With the advent of Deepfake algorithms it was inevitable that impersonation would go beyond email. Deepfake pornography created for blackmail or revenge purposes appeared shortly after the technology became available. Using it for impersonation has mainly been for entertainment purposes, until recently. As far as I know, this is the first published case outside of fiction of an attacker going this far in impersonation. That they did not think to spoof the source phone number, leading to early detection, is surprising.

There are possible solutions to this. Since we have yet to effectively solve the problem of impersonation by changing only the display name on e-mails I suspect they are a long way from widespread adoption.